‘Invention’, p. 5.
 Here I draw on Jansen’s (n.p.) remarks on Margery Kempe, which I quote later in this piece.
 Mulder-Bakker, ‘Laywomen’, p. 5. See also Flory.
 Caciola, p. 271.
 See in particular: pp. 11-14, 47-52, 167-87.
 Meyer, ‘Media’, p. 126.
 Ibid., p. 127. On this, see also: ‘Medium’, in which the citation appears verbatim on p. 60.
 Lives and Loves, pp. 201-21.
 Ibid., p. 203.
 This associates hagiography with other medieval media which aim at engendering authentic yet virtual experiences. This includes, for example, guided meditational manuals in the tradition of affective piety which place the reader-cum-seer in the thick of biblical history, such as Aelred of Rievaulx’s De institutione inclusarum and the Meditaciones vite Christi (dubiously ascribed to John of Caulibus). I refer to the latter briefly in Medieval Saints and Modern Screens, Chapter 4 (pp.193-94). Virtuality was equally central in medieval pilgrimage guides to, and images of, Jerusalem for the imaginative use of those for whom travel to the holy site in person was impossible. For details and analyses of such works, see: Rudy, ‘Cityscape’; ‘Guide’; ‘Fragments’; Virtual Pilgrimages.
 Lives and Loves, p. 215. Mitchell writes extensively on this topic, see in particular: Iconology, pp.7-46; Image Science, pp. 13-21; 125-35.
 The phrase ‘star image’ is coined by Dyer, used repeatedly in Stars.
 Stars, p. 2.
 Although still known a ‘Kim Kardashian’ by many, the star rebranded herself across all media outlets in 2014 as ‘Kardashian West’ following her marriage to rapper Kanye West. As such, I refer to her as ‘Kardashian West’ throughout. On celebrity and ‘ugly crying’, see: Cote.
 ‘Kardashian Family Vacation’ (S02E08, first aired 4 May 2008). On the links between reality-TV tears and medieval crying as confessional expressions of contrition, see: Weisl.
 I refer to the Staley edition of the Book for all original citations (as MKB), and the Windeatt’s translation for modern English text (as MKBEng).
 See, for example: MKB, 1.13.620-23.40.
 Ibid., 1.13.623-73.41-42.
 Fictions, p. 3. On this, see also: pp. 1-38.
 MKBEng, 1.13.63. ‘“I wold thow wer closyd in an hows of ston that ther schuld no man speke wyth the.’” MKB, 1.13.629-30.41.
 Comments by YouTube users ‘stiLLa himself’, ‘MUSIC IS MA L!FE!’, and ‘Frank Conrad’ respectively. As of 3 January 2018 (4pm), the video had been viewed 1,260,831 times.
 Quotes from comments by ‘Frank Beltra’ and ‘John Roberts’.
 Bale, p. 16.
 ‘Margery Kempe, The Book of Margery Kempe: This woman was Crazy’, n.p.
 Dr Virago, n.p. These are comments made by students when encountering Margery in their reading list, reported in a blogpost by a medievalist professor using the pseudonym ‘Dr Virago’. Though technically made by individuals ‘in the academy’, these cutting remarks nevertheless summarize the general critique levelled against Margery in trolling online.
 On this, see in particular: Atkinson, ‘Sanctity’, pp. 226-33; Lewis; Staley, Fictions, pp. 171-200; Yoshikawa, pp. 94-104.
 The ‘beguine’ classification is problematic generally. I discus this at length in Medieval Saints and Modern Screens, pp. 25-37.
 Pp. 226-7, 230, 235-41.
 Arnold of Liège, ex. 435-36, pp. 246-47. For references to Marie in the fifteenth-century translation, see: Banks (ed.), II, ex. 427, p. 293; ex. 429, p. 294.
 MKBEng, 1.62.191-92. ‘And yet owr Lord drow [the scribe] agen in short time, blissed mote he ben, that he lovyd [Margery] mor and trustyd mor to hir wepyng and hir crying than evyr he dede beforn, for aftyrward he red of a woman clepyd Maria de Oegines, […] and of the plentyuows teerys that sche wept, the whech made hir so febyl and so weke that sche myth not endur to beheldyn the crosse, ne heryn owr Lordys Passyon rehersyd, so sche was resolvyd into terys of pyté and compassyon.’ MKB, 1.62.3610-15.149.
 MKBEng, 1.68.205. ‘The worschepful doctowr seyd to hir, “Margery, I have red of an holy woman whom God had govyn gret grace of wepyng and crying as he hath don onto yow. In the cherc ther sche dwellyd was a preyste which had no conseyt in hir wepyng and cawsyd hir thorw hys steryng to gon owte of the cherche. […] [S]che mreyd God that the preyst myth have felyng of the grace that sche felt […]. And so sodeynly owr Lord sent hym devocyn at hys messe that he myth not mesuryn himself, and then wolde he no more despisyn hir aftyr that but rathyr comfortyn hir.”’ MKB, 1.68.3925-33.160.
 VMOME, 1.5.152-53.93; VMO, 184.108.40.2060.
 MKB, 1.62.3618-21.149.
 VMOME, 1.5.148-49.93; VMO, 220.127.116.110.
 Pomarico, n.p. See also: Kardashian, Kardashian, and Kardashian, p. 100.
 Kardashian West insists that she was not, in fact, Hilton’s stylist, but the socialite was a client of her eBay-selling and closet-organising business: Kardashian West and Swisher, ‘Interview’.
‘Ro-Day-O vs. Ro-Dee-O’ (S01E01, first aired 2 December 2003), ‘The Nolan Family’ (S04E01, first aired 4 June 2006), ‘The Ghauri Family (S04E02, first aired 11 June 2006), ‘Murrie Family’ (S04E06, first aired 16 July 2009).
 For all intents and purposes, this interview has been scrubbed from the internet. It is impossible to pin down exactly when this interview took place, though it coincides with Hilton’s promotional tour for The World According to Paris, which debuted in June 2011. This is clear when examining a short excerpt of the interview posted to Hilton’s YouTube channel, in which she discusses her new series: Paris Hilton - Entertainment Tonight. Hilton’s appearance and the set décor matches the clip of the interview in which Hilton disses Kardashian West. This clip is a much-shared gif online, and the interview remarks are cited in myriad online gossip stories, though without any source identification. See, for example: Flynn; George; Woodward.
 Hilton and Zee, n.p..
 See, for example: Kourtney & Kim Take Miami, Kourtney & Kim Take New York.
 MKBEng, 1.20.83; MKB, 1.20.1089.58.
 MKBEng, 1.20.83; MKB, 1.20.1085-86.58.
 P. 52.
 MKB, 1.1.130-87.21-23.
 Ibid., 1.1.142-50.22. This episode is often interpreted as post-partum psychosis or mental illness within a modern framework. See in particular: Craun; Freeman, Bogarad, and Sholomskas; Jefferies and Horsfall, pp. 350-52; Torn.
 P. 353.
 Douay-Rheims Bible.
 McAvoy, pp. 36-37.
 Kardashian West, Selfish, p. 253. See also the ‘before’ and ‘afters’ selfies: ibid., pp. 228-31.
 Google Trends.
 Brother Tristram and Kershaw (eds.), p. 502.
 Church Pension Fund, p. 611.
 On this, see in particular: Tolhurst.
 Cohn-Sherbok (ed.), p. 167.
 ‘40 Years’, n.p.
 P. 336.
 P. 215.
 Sconce, p. 336.
 ‘Runway Capsule Collection’, n.p.
 P. 170.
 Ibid., p. 174.
 Bynum, p. 41.
 Harding, p. 172.
 P. 336.
 Ingram; Kardashian West and Swisher, ‘Interview’, ‘Naked Selfies’; Kirst.
 As of 3 January 2018, Kardashian West had: 58 million followers on Twitter; 105 million followers on Instagram; and 30.1 million followers on Facebook.
 Kardashian West, ‘Tonight’s episode’.
 Kardashian West, ‘However’.
 Kardashian West, ‘I have always shared’.
 P. 172.
 On celebrity as a business, see Kardashian, Kardashian, and Kardashian, pp. 131-39, 213-19.
 Pesca et al. This is a typical reaction to Kardashian West’s appearance in ‘series’ media. See, for example: Gannes.
 Jensen, n.p.
 Watson, p. 396.
 Lorenzi, ‘I see many’. The whole thread is worth reading on this topic: ‘Sitting here’.
 Lorenzi, ‘Because I’ve seen’.
 For a summary of the vitriolic – and abhorrent – backlash Kim has received after posting the piece, see: Roll; Xu.
 Jerry Springer devotes the closing minutes of his massively successful talk show, The Jerry Springer Show, to his ‘final thoughts’ on a given topic. Or at least he did, when I was a regular watcher in my misspent youth, i.e. the early 2000s. Contrasted with the typical trashy, tabloid banality of an episode, these final remarks allowed Jerry to deliver some home-spun wisdom, roughly centred on lessons learnt from his guests.
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KUWtK: Keeping Up With the Kardashians, created by Ryan Seacrest and Eliot Goldberg (prod. by Bunim-Murray Productions and Ryan Seacrest Productions, 2007-present)
MKB: Staley, Lynn, ed., The Book of Margery Kempe, TEAMS Middle English Texts (Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1996)
MKBEng: Windeatt, Barry, trans., The Book of Margery Kempe (London: Penguin, 1985)
VMO: Jacques of Vitry, De B. Maria Oigniacensi in Namurcensi Belgii dioecesi, ed. by Daniel Papebroeck, in AASS, June IV (23) (1707 (repr. 1969)), 636-66
VMOME: Jacques of Vitry, ‘The Middle English Life of Marie d’Oignies’, in Three Women of Liège: A Critical Edition of and Commentary on the Middle English Lives of Elizabeth of Spalbeek, Christina Mirabilis, and Marie d’Oignies, ed. by Jennifer N. Brown (Turnhout: Brepols, 2008), pp. 85-190